Paris: September, 1792
  • "...a proud tyrant raised an undying monument to the nation's glory and his own vanity." The tyrant is Napoleon and the monument is the Arc de Triomphe. However, in 1806 one stone was layed on Napoleon's birthday but the Arc was not built until 1836.
  • A "blue blood" is an aristocrat - rich blood - wealth and breeding stays within the family (blood lines).
  • noblesse means nobility obliges. The Oxford English Dictionary says that the term "suggests noble ancestry constrains to honourable behavior; privilege entails to responsibility". Being a noble meant that one had responsibilities to lead, manage and so on. One was not to simply spend one's time in idle pursuits.
  • ci-devant means "Ci-devant nobility (from the French, meaning "from before") were the French nobility of the ancien régime (the Bourbon monarchy) after it had lost its titles and privileges in the French Revolution; it may be compared to the English language term late, as it expresses the (figurative) death of the nobility. Even prior to the revolution, the term ci-devant was already a common expression to refer to "people or things dispossessed of their estate or quality" Wikipedia."
  • Citoyen - French for citizen.
  • Morbleu - Morbleu! (French). A corruption of Mort de Dieu. "To shout blue murder. Indicative more of terror or alarm than of real danger. It appears to be a play on the French exclamation morbleu; there may also be a distinct allusion to the common phrase “blue ruin.”
  • En avant - forward, onward, ahead.
  • Sacre tonnerre - an exclamation that means Holy Thunder.
Dover: "The Fisherman's Rest"
  • Hearth -"... is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace or oven used for cooking and/or heating. Because of its nature, in historic times the hearth was considered an integral part of a home, often its central or most important feature: its Latin name is focus.[1] This concept has been generalized to refer to a homeplace or household, as in the terms "hearth and home" and "keep the home fires burning." Wikipedia
  • pewter "... is a malleable metal alloy, traditionally between 85 and 99 percent tin, with the remainder consisting of copper, antimony, bismuth and lead." Wikipedia In this case pewter mugs were used to contain beer.
  • buxom - vigorously and healthy plump - full bossomed.
  • tankards - "A tankard is a form of drinkware consisting of a large, roughly cylindrical, drinking cup with a single handle. Tankards are usually made of silver, pewter, or glass, but can be made of other materials, for example clay or leather.[1] A tankard may have a hinged lid, and tankards featuring glass bottoms are also fairly common. Tankards are shaped and used similarly to beer steins. external image 180px-Tankard2.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngExample of little ceramic tankard with lid

Lead leaching from pewter

external image 180px-Pewter_Tankard.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngPewter tankard
In previous centuries, the pewter used to make tankards often contained lead, which exposed the drinker to medical effects ranging from heavy metal poisoning to gout.[3] This effect was exacerbated in cider drinking areas such as Somerset, UK, as the acid qualities of the cider leached out the lead content from the pewter more quickly. Clay tankards became prevalent in this area. Pewter is now widely lead-free.