biwa-hoshi- Travelling performers who earned their income by reciting vocal literature to the accompaniment of 'biwa' music. These performers were often blind.
acolyte- An altar attendant in public worship.
retainers- A servant or attendant who has served a family for many years.
conjecture- The formation or expression of an opinion or theory without sufficient evidence for proof.
reticence- Disposed to be silent or not to speak freely; reserved.
bewitched- To affect by witchcraft or magic; cast a spell over.
sutra- A collection of aphorisms relating to some aspect of the conduct of life.

The 48th temple of Sairinji

In the small city of Naruto, Tokushima, there lived a Buddhist monk. He was named after the God of Luck ‘Ebisu’, and he always took pride in the fact that he was named after such a God. He usually practiced meditation, praying, and chanting with a group of other monks who lived in his neighborhood, and one night when the men gathered together they decided to go on the 88 Temple Pilgrimage of Shikoku Island. They had all heard others talk about it in the past; how exhausting it could be- the whole trip was supposed to take about five to seven weeks, but they were prepared and were determined to take all the right routes, visit all 88 temples, and complete their trip by returning to Naruto.
The following week, on the twenty-second day of the fifth month, Ebisu and his group left their homes and headed straight for Ryozenji, the first temple. This was in the city of Naruto, not too far away from their neighborhood. There were five other monks with Ebisu, and they were all in full traditional pilgrimage attire: the white coat called the hakui, the wagesa- a purple scarf worn around the neck, and all the men held onto the kongotsue which was a walking stick and an indispensable sign that identified them as pilgrims. The men also had on conical straw hats called sugegasa on their heads as this was also tradition.
The weather was perfectly fine on the day the group departed with a nice breeze blowing form the west and it stayed this way for at least about another week or so, but on the third week there came a huge, frightening storm. The clouds were as black as coal, and the rain, wind, and lightning put together sounded like a screaming baby. Ebisu took this as a warning for danger to come, and so the pilgrims stayed at a small inn that night, hoping for better weather the next day.
A few hours after settling into the inn that night, Shoji, one of the monks who had been traveling with Ebisu, went through a kamishibari: a nightmare where you feel paralyzed. He was grunting, kicking, and rolling, unable to control himself in his sleep. He let out a sharp cry, which woke the others up. Once Shoji had calmed down, he explained to the others what he had just gone through and about the terrible dream.
“The dream was about us traveling on our pilgrimage,” he said. “We were heading towards the 48th temple of Sairinji. When we arrived, a cheerful lady greeted us and let us in, but made us wait in one of the rooms for a while, telling us that she would be back in a few moments with refreshments. When she did not come back after a half hour, I became suspicious as well as restless, and decided to go look for the lady. I searched all the hallways and many rooms, and finally found her in the tea room. At first she appeared to be making tea, but when I looked closer it became apparent that she was carefully mixing in a death substance into the tea. When I realized I was shocked, and went straight for her. I grabbed her wrist and turned her to me, but I let go when I saw that it was not a lady at all, but a man in disguise, and not just any man, but the owner of the Sairinji himself. When he saw me he started strangling me, and threatened that if I told anybody about what I had just seen, he would come and kill us all.”
When Shoji was done speaking, Ebisu replied:
“Nightmares can be upsetting but we should not be afraid because they are not ‘real’ and cannot harm us. Everybody gets them once in a while, and so we should ignore the threat and continue our trip. Later we shall take off for the temple of Sairinji. Remember, my name comes from the God of Luck. His luck will protect us from anything.”
Later that evening, the five men left the inn and took off for Sairinji. It was only a few miles away, and when they got to the entrance there stood a nice looking lady, just like the one Shoji had described in his dream. They all became anxious, but Ebisu forced everybody in. The young lady brought them inside, and as eerie as this sounds, left the room for refreshments.
The monks followed and were strangled to death.
Nobody knew why any monk who went on the 88 Temple Pilgrimage of Shikoku Island never made it back to Naruto. The 48th temple was the reason why, but that was something only the owner, ghosts, and spirits of Sairinji knew about.

1. Using the information on the restoration pp.258 - 264 explain the bar graph at the bottom of p.261
2. Using Excel could present this information in another format. Please state the format you plan to use and insert the pie chart, line chart, histogram or other chart or graph format on your own page within this wiki.

3. Like parts of the U.K. Japan went through Industrialisation rapidly. However Japan's Industrialisation was later than the U.K. Read the section titled "Economic policies and the beginnings of Industrialisation" p.p. 270- 280. Using Excel, graph (using a different graph format for each) the following statistics:
  • the Japanese merchant ship statistics at the top of p. 273
  • the amount of railway track p.274
  • gold and silver production p.274
  • land tax paid p.277

1) The graph on page 261 of the booklet "The Meiji Era and Policies for Modernization" is a graph representing the different types of institutions that either profited or were destroyed by the Meiji Restoration. During the Meiji period, there was a lot of transition and deliberate transformation that had a lot to do with the West. The period of isolation that Japan had gone through died and foreign trade became common.
A large group of Choshu troops and their leaders were near Kyoto, poised to reenter the city from which they were not allowed to get in a few years before the Restoration. This is an example of a group that directly profited from the Restoration.
On the other hand, there were some groups and institutions that did not benefit and in fact were destroyed or eclipsed by the Restoration. An example is the city merchants. During this period, the old baku-han regime weakened. So, the alternative elements replaced the han for preparation in the way for what would follow next. Generally, change came mainly from the middle and lower samurai ranks, as well as the rural merchants, both before and after 1868. For this reason, the city merchants and towns "stood on the sidelines" and did not have much of a role to play in the Restoration. The city merchants deferred to the other elite groups and the Restoration destroyed the group.

Follow up

1) What was the easiest program to use in relation to displaying statistics? Why?
I found that for me, Excel was the easiest program to use. This was mostly because of how organized the program is. The cells, rows, and columns on the page are made so that when you insert in your data and click on a single button called "Graph", it automatically converts the information into a simple graph that makes sense and is easy to understand. I also liked how Excel gave you options on color, design, and effect. There was a page where you could easily choose a certain type of design and format for the graph, which I enjoyed choosing.

2) What would you like a graphing programme to do for you that you currently cannot access?
I would find it very helpful if a graphing program could set the right intervals for the numbers from the data instead of me having to choose them and fix them after making the graph.