biwa-hoshi: travelling performers that recited vocal literature to the accompaniment of biwa music and often looked like Bhuddist monks.
acolyte: one who assists the celebrant in the performance of liturgical rites.
retainers: a servant or attendant who has served a family for many years.
conjecture: the formation or expression of an opinion or theory without sufficient evidence for proof.
reticence: disposed to be silent or not to speak freely.
bewitched: to affect be witchfraft or magic; cast a spell on someone.
sutra: a collection of aphorisms relating to some aspect of the conduct of life.
A Japanese Ghost Story
Japan’s art of fighting flourished exceptionally and reached its zenith during the Azuchi Momoyama period. Three of the most powerful shogun in Japanese history ruled the land; Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Many battles were fought in which countless samurai were killed unceremoniously. The people of Japan were frightened to think what would happen if they happened to cross the lines of those in power. They dared not do anything without permission.
During this time, there was once a day when the wind howled like the cries of a wolf and the rain fell so strong that you could not see 10 meters in front of you. One man, Miyamoto Mitsunari was on battle this day and could not see where to place his footings. He began to lose all hope of getting back to the main battlefield when all of a sudden, he stepped into a clearing that had not been not flooded from the everlasting rain and immediately found himself staring head on at numerous opponent samurai that had been injured or had lost their swords and had come together away from the battle. The opponents immediately stood up, preparing to fight, which of course was useless. They had no weapons or the power to fight and could not run away for they would lose their way in the rain or stumble as surely as the sun rises every morning. Recognizing they were under their sudden enemy’s command, one man came forward and bowed low.
“Please sir, we are under your command and will do anything you tell us to. Anything besides killing ourselves, we will do. Please send us to your master and not kill us all here which would go against the ways of the samurai. Our souls will haunt you for the rest of ”
Mitsunari never let the samurai finish his sentence. He cut open his stomach through the metal armor and slashed his head cleanly off his body. The head dropped, then landed to the ground with a thud and rolled close to Mitsunari’s foot. The eyes were filled more with anger than shock, pitying the man who had purposely disobeyed the teachings of the samurai. Blood spurted out of the body, rushing out and mingling with the downpour of rain, turning the puddle around it into a crimson red. Mitsunari took a step forward, raised his sword and slashed it down one after another after another.
It had been easy for Mitsunari to come up with a lie. He told his masters that many samurai had suddenly sprung upon him out of the rain and that he had instinctively slain all of them. He also told them that the weapons that they had, he had thrown them far into the woods so that nobody would be able to find them. Luckily for Mitsunari, one of the samurai had been a high ranking general and because of this, Mitsunari himself got promoted and became a general. And so time passed on and for several weeks, even months, nothing happened. Mitsunari never much thought of what he had done, neither did he think that he had done the wrong thing.
It was not until three months after what happened that things began to change. It was a rainy night, just like the night three months ago. A typhoon was coming and the wind was blowing, howling, trying to sweep into the many homes along the coast of Osaka. Miiyamoto Mitsunari heard it too, in his mansion next to Osaka Castle where his master Toyotomi Hideyoshi lived. He had shut all the windows hard but still, the wind seemed to be coming in. What was more, he could hear water dripping near the door to his house. As he quietly stepped through his house, his yukata shuffling behind him, he found not water, but blood on the floor. Curious, Mitsunari followed the trail until he reached his door leading outside. Not knowing why, not caring what the weather was like outside, he opened the door and stepped outside.
Immediately, his clothes were soaked in the blasting rain. However, the most surprising thing was not the rain but that a headless figure in samurai armor stood facing him with a bloody sword. The man said in a hoarse voice,
“I asked you not to kill us,” and with that, cut off Mitsunari’s head with one clean cut. He stabbed into his chest again and again muttering “this is for my fellow samurai warriors, take this!” The last thing that Mitsunari saw before his soul left him was the silver glimmer of the sword, reflecting the many faces of samurai that he had killed in the rain.
The next day, when the storm cleared, the servants of Mitsunari found his body lying in a heap near the door. His samurai armor had been torn and thrown on top of him. For many years to come people whispered about the ‘strange incident concerning Miyamoto Mitsunari’ and said that if any one person was not to be disappointed in any matter, it was the samurai.



emperor hirohito

ito hirobumi

fukuzawa yukichi

saigo takamori

Sino Japanese War


Russo Japanese War


Statistics: charts and graphs

1. The graph on page 261 shows the institutions and groups that profited from the Meiji Restoration, as well as groups and institutions that were destroyed or eclipsed by the Meiji Restoration. The graph shows the transition from a feudal Japan to a modernized Japan. This transition affected many groups such as the Edo Bakufu ending due to the Meiji Restoration.

2. Using the graph on pg. 261, I have made it into a pie chart.qwertyui.jpg
the Japanese merchant ship statistics at the top of p. 273

the amount of railway track p.274

gold and silver production p.274

land tax paid p.277

Follow Up Questions
What was the easiest program to use in relation to displaying statistics? Why?
Microsoft Excel because it is very simple and you can make graphs quickly and very easily. You have a variety of graphs to choose from and you can change many layouts of the graphs which makes Excel the best.

What would you like a graphing programme to do for you that you currently cannot access?
Possibly more choices for customizing and changing the graph layouts to match your needs as well as using 3-D graphs to incorporate many ggraphs into one.