biwa-hoshi- Japanese street performers who sing while playing their Biwa, a short necked japanese lute
acolyte- someone who assists a priest or a minister in a liturgical service
retainers- a fee charged in advance to retain the services of someone
conjecture- a statement or an idea which is unproven but appears correct; a guess
reticence- restrained, cool and in a formal manner
bewitched- under a spell
sutra- A rule in Sanskrit grammar or Hindu law or philosophy

Japanese ghosts

Muromachi period
- kawanakajima battles

Himeji castle
Edo Period

Ghost Story Composition
Setting- 10 years after the 3rd battle of Kawanakajima
Taro- the first andonly son of the Okuda Family
Goro- the Father of the two sons
Kaede- the mother of the two sons
Kin- the grandmother / mother of Goro
Yamato- the grandfather/ father of Goro
Composition (this may change)
Taro is born 30 years after the battle of kawanakajima
he has visions about fighting
at the age of 15, he claims that he sees a countless number of warrior ghosts every night
Kin, the grandmother tells a story about how lost souls can enter a child
4 years later, he finds out that the warrior ghosts are from the Uesugi family.
after 2 months, Taro sees the ghosts again that kill him
the family finds out that they are the descendants of the Takeda family.
after 5 months, the father claims to see the warrior ghosts and dies
the mother, after 2 months see the same ghosts and die
the grandparents died after 1 month
the spirits and ghosts of the warriors continiue to enter peoples bodies.

Ghost Story- The Lost Warrior
In the year 1594, a boy named Taro was born in the Okuda family. Since he was a child, he claimed of seeing figures of warriors at night. No one except for Kin, the grandmother of Taro suspected that something was wrong with Taro. Grandparents, parents and children usually lived together during the Sengoku period. Taro’s father Goro, had stated that those warriors are in Taro’s dreams, and his religious mother, Kaede alerted that the warriors are some type of message sent from spirits. Although the warriors that Taro sees every night may be simple dreams, but there may be another cause.
Harvesting season has come, Goro and the people in the state of Shinanokuni prepared to gather rice. When a large number of people gathered to harvest rice, many people bartered goods and ideas at the same time. While Goro was out harvesting rice, Kin started to talk to Taro in a solemn manner at their home.
“This is what I heard from other people, but it is possible that a spirit or soul that has no place to go can enter a human body.” Taro faced Kin with a mystified expression and replied, “What’s that got to do with anything?”
Kin started again, “You seem to see figures of warriors every night, and that can be because of some lost souls. I have heard of a person who started to see ghosts and died after 5 years after they started to see the ghosts. What kind of warriors do you see every night?”
Taro replied, “ The warriors that appear at night are very enraged, but remain silent. They always carry a flag with two birds facing each other and large cat like eyes on the bottom. They seem to try to get me killed, and had a pole to stick a person’s head after one team wins a battle. Every day the warriors get more furious and their numbers increase.”
“Mmmm. A flag with two birds and large eyes on the bottom…” Kin thought, and left Taro’s room. After few moments Kin brought a thick book titled “Record of Shinanokuni” and opened it.
Kin continued, “As written on this book, fifty years ago there was a battle in this area called the battle of Kawanakajima. This battle was between the Uesugi clan and the Takeda clan. The government originally controlled this place, Shinanokuni, but both the clans wanted this land for resources. During this war, the Uesugi clan carried flags with their family symbol, two birds and large car eyes on the bottom. There were five battles in total in Kawanakajima, but no one won. Even though the battles are over, the uesugi clan still hates the Takeda clan.”
What can that relate to the fact that ghosts like warriors appear before Taro every night?
Both the generals of each clan, Takeda Shingen and Uesugi Kenshin were killed during the battle, but people still talk about their lost spirits are still wondering in this land. The family, tried to find out if they were related to Takeda Shingen, but nothing interesting appeared. The sun began to set but they couldn’t find out any interesting facts.
On the next morning, a scream from Kaede shook the entire house of the Okuda Family. There on the floor, a headless body of Taro faced down was filled with a pool of blood. Next to Taro’s corpse were lettered in the tatami mat carved in with red blood. It said: we finally got you, Shingen but your spirit still remains wandering… and on the bottom, there was the same symbol of two birds and large cat eyes on the bottom. With these hints, Yamato, the grandfather was able to deduce that the lost spirit of Takeda Shingen went into Taro, and the Uesugi clan came to take his head.
The next day, there was the body of Yamato, with no head on the floor. Something was different this time. On the floor, there were the words: we are the ghosts of the Uesugi soldiers. No one shall no our identity, and you may not tell what happened to anyone. Or else…
Overwhelmed with shock, Kin disobeyed the message and told everybody in town about what happened about Taro and Yamato. At midnight when the family was trying to comfort each other from the incidents, the ghost warriors appeared infront of them. They said, “Why did you tell everyone…” and got out an enigmatic sword and other weapons.
The next morning, there were no people in the house of the Okuda family. On the windowsill, there were the heads of each family member starting from Taro, Yamato, Kin, Kaede and Goro. It is believed that the ghosts and spirits of the lost warriors of Uesugi still haunt people in Japan.


Project A- Important personalities to the meiji period
Japanese Empire
The emperor Meiji

Hirobumi Ito

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Saigo Takamori

Project B- the sino japanese war

Graph on Page 261
1.The graph on page 261 shows the institutions and groups that profited from the Meiji Restoration, and groups that were destroyed or eclipsed by the Meiji Restoration. This shows the transition of Japan from being a feudal "closed" country to a modern country. The transition caused many changes in groups and institutions. For example, Chinese learning had influence, but it faded away after the restoration.

2.Graph on Page 261

3.Modern Ships in Japan

Amount of Railway Track

Amount of Gold and Silver Mined

Land Tax

The easiest program to create graphs from statistics was Microsoft Excel because there were many options to change how the graph looks. It is also good because there are many types of graphs available like scatter plots, bar graphs, pie charts and so on to fit the information to present.
Another program that might be better than excel is "Numbers" by apple. Unlike excel, the program can automatically graph statistics. A graphing program should have this feature, and have more graphics for the statistics.